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  • 釋昭慧:「離於二邊,說於中道」——「大地倫理」之環境整體論與佛法觀點的回應(之一)(刊於法印學報第4期)

 「離於二邊,說於中道」

──「大地倫理」之環境整體論與佛法觀點的回應(之一)

釋昭慧(玄奘大學宗教學系教授、系主任兼社會科學院院長)

全文pdf檔

摘要:

  當代西方哲學界的環境整體論,可分為「大地倫理」與「深層生態學」兩大主軸論述。倘若深入瞭解,即可發現:這兩大生態哲學,竟都不約而同地與「宗教」有所交集,特別是在「探源」時,它們都回歸於宗教的核心理論──前者與基督宗教的淵源甚深,其「生態系統價值」論,饒富「創造論」的色彩;後者則深受佛教的影響,表象上運用了「大我」這樣的詞彙,實則較貼近「無我」與「同體大悲」的思想。

  本文首先將簡介環境倫理「整體論」(holism)的代表性論述之一:西方的「大地倫理」系列哲學思想,並針對「整體論」所面對的兩大質疑(1. 它是「環境法西斯主義」(environmental fascism)。2. 它犯了倫理學所謂的「自然主義的謬誤」(naturalistic fallacy),亦即混淆了「實然」與「應然」之間的關係),檢視這一系列的哲學思辯,是否能夠充分回應這樣的質疑。

  其次,本文將探討「大地倫理」(特別是「系統價值」學說)中的神學思維,在環境倫理方面的功能,並作佛法觀點的回應。至於本人對「深層生態學」的看法,則因篇幅所限,將留待下一篇論文再作省思與檢視。 
 
關鍵詞:總體論、個體論、大地倫理、緣起、護生、中道、自通之法

* 本文係科技部整合型研究計畫《台灣環境倫理與動物倫理之佛教論述、影響與前瞻》之第二期報告。該項計畫編號為NSC 101-2632-H-364-001-MY3。本計畫執行期間自民國101年08月01日起至104年07月31日止。


‘Without Veering to the Two Extremes, the Buddha Expounds the Teaching of the Middle Path’:
A Response to the Land Ethic of Environmental Holism and the Buddhist Viewpoints Within (I)
 
Shih, Chao-hwei *

ABSTRACT:

In the contemporary Western philosophy, environmental holism is mainly divided into two groups of discourses, i.e. the ‘Land Ethic’ and the ‘deep ecology’. A close examination shows that, by coincidence, both ecophilosophies converge with religion. In particular, when seeking the sources of the two philosophies, we are led to the core theories of religion. The ‘Land Ethic’ indicates a close connection with Christianity; its ecosystemic value shares the essentials of creationism. The ‘deep ecology’ is under the strong influence of Buddhism, which appears to advocate the idea of ‘The Universal Self’ but its essence resembles more those of ‘Nonself’ and ‘Great Compassion Born of Oneness’.

The first part of the current article briefed the series of the Western philosophical discourse on the Land Ethic (one of the representative discussions in holism of environmental ethics) and it continued to examine if this dialectal thinking effectively responded to two of the major criticisms hurled against holism (that holism is environmental fascism and that it commits the naturalistic fallacy in ethical terms, i.e. confusing the relation between ‘Sein’ or is and ‘Sollen’ or ought to be.)

Moreover, this article took on a Buddhist approach to investigate the theological thinking embedded in the Land Ethic (particularly the systemic value) and its role in environmental ethics. Due to space limitations, the researcher’s reflections and reviews on the deep ecology will be presented in another article.

Keywords: Holism, individualism, the Land Ethic, dependent arising (s. pratīya-samutpāda; p. paṭicca-samuppāda), life conservation, the Middle Way, method of self-mastery

* Professor and Director, Department of Religious Studies; Dean of College of Social Science, Hsuan Chuang University
This article is the second report on a Research Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology. The project number is NSC 101-2632-H-364-001-MY3. The execution of this project is during August 1, 2012 until July 31, 2015.


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